## Wind Turbines

We are the Borg.
Rob Lister
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### Re: Wind Turbines

I didn't get that one either.

""Please, speak as you might to a young child, or a golden retriever"
-- CEO John Tuld (Jeremy Irons), Margin Call
Witness
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### Re: Wind Turbines

Well, well…

1. Imagine 4 people per square meter – that's a square 1m x 1m. Feel crowded in the county?

2. 150 MWh = 150 MW · 1h = 75 MW · 2h = 50 MW · 3h = … = 1 MW · 150h (and not 1.5). Because MWh = MW · h. Energy = power · time (duration).

3. One has really to do everything here.
ed
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### Re: Wind Turbines

Abdul Alhazred wrote: Fri May 15, 2020 12:48 am Electricity is all "metric" even in the USA.

Except sometimes small electric motors are rated in horsepower.

1 hp == 746 watts.
An Ohm was never metric <--negated!!
This space for let
Rob Lister
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### Re: Wind Turbines

Witness wrote: Fri May 15, 2020 1:13 am Well, well…

1. Imagine 4 people per square meter – that's a square 1m x 1m. Feel crowded in the county?
Oh. I should have written mi. My bad.
2. 150 MWh = 150 MW · 1h = 75 MW · 2h = 50 MW · 3h = … = 1 MW · 150h (and not 1.5). Because MWh = MW · h. Energy = power · time (duration).
okay, i get it. They wrote 1MW but I read 100MW. I'm old. Sometimes I just add zeros.
3. One has really to do everything here.
Witness
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### Re: Wind Turbines

Rob Lister wrote: Fri May 15, 2020 2:05 am Oh. I should have written mi.
Abolish the tyranny of Metric™!!!
Rob Lister
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### Re: Wind Turbines

I still don't get the metric part. Please don't be angry. Did I mess up a metric conversion somewhere?
Witness
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### Re: Wind Turbines

Oh, it's just pep talk for ed.
Witness
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### Re: Wind Turbines

Power station switch from coal to hydrogen sets new global example

JOHANNESBURG (miningweekly.com) – The transitioning of a US power station from coal to renewable hydrogen is leading the way in a world urgently in need of meaningful action to combat climate change.

The ground-breaking transition by Intermountain Power Agency of Utah, is being facilitated by Mitsubishi Hitachi Power Systems, which has steam generator projects at Eskom’s new Medupi and Kusile coal-fired power stations in South Africa.

Utah’s two-unit 1 900 MW coal-fired Intermountain power plant is operated by the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power, America’s largest municipal utility, which is overseeing the new clean, green advance that follows the announcement by Los Angeles mayor Eric Garcetti last year of a sustainable city plan that embraces 100% renewable power.

In a media release to Mining Weekly on Wednesday, Mitsubishi Hitachi Power Systems stated that the order secured from Intermountain Power Agency is for the first advanced-class gas turbines designed to transition from coal to renewable hydrogen fuel and that the company had also been assigned to convert the Magnum Vattenfall 440 MW power plant in the Netherlands to 100% hydrogen by 2025.

At Intermountain, from 2025 electricity is scheduled to be generated from a mix of 30% hydrogen and 70% natural gas, and phasing up to 100% hydrogen power by 2045. The initial hydrogen and natural gas fuel mix to mid-2020 will reduce carbon emissions by 75%. Then,to meet California law, from 2025 onwards, the hydrogen capability would be systematically increased to 100% renewable hydrogen, enabling carbon-free utility-scale power generation.

Mitsubishi Hitachi Power Systems added in the release that it was now focused on bringing similar decarbonisation solutions to Africa and the Middle East.

In Utah, another key element being developed is advanced clean energy storage (ACES), which Magnum Development will be providing adjacent to Intermountain’s power plant.

The ACES project will use a combination of renewable power to produce and store hydrogen through electrolysis, with the hydrogen stored in an on-site underground salt dome, using technology that has been in operation for the past 30 years to supply hydrogen to refineries on the US’ Gulf Coast. This stored renewable hydrogen will provide power when wind and solar availability blinks.
https://www.miningweekly.com/article/po ... 020-05-14/ for the rest.

We'll see how that "media release" works out.
Witness
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### Re: Wind Turbines

ANALYSIS: Renewable energy consumption topped coal in 2019 for the first time since 1885: EIA
• Coal energy consumption falls to lowest level since 1964
• Renewable energy consumption rises four straight years
• Low gas prices spurring reduced coal consumption
Houston — US renewable energy consumption in 2019 surpassed coal energy consumption for the first time in 130 years as coal used for electricity continues to decline while more renewables are joining the grid as part of an energy transition to cleaner power sources, according to the U.S. Energy Information Administration's Monthly Energy Review.

Total renewable energy consumption in 2019 reached a record high of 11.5 quadrillion Btus, an increase of 1.4% year on year and the fourth straight year to grow, according to the report. Meanwhile, coal energy consumption fell to 11.3 quads, a drop of 15% year on year to its lowest level since 1964 and its sixth consecutive year to fall.

https://www.spglobal.com/platts/en/mark ... e-1885-eia
Rob Lister
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### Re: Wind Turbines

Witness wrote: Sun May 31, 2020 2:52 am
ANALYSIS: Renewable energy consumption topped coal in 2019 for the first time since 1885: EIA
• Coal energy consumption falls to lowest level since 1964
• Renewable energy consumption rises four straight years
• Low gas prices spurring reduced coal consumption
https://www.spglobal.com/platts/en/mark ... e-1885-eia

Number 2 is like a politician shoving Number 3's aside to take credit for his hard work.
Witness
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### Re: Wind Turbines

Rob Lister wrote: Sun May 31, 2020 9:46 am
Number 2 is like a politician shoving Number 3's aside to take credit for his hard work.
Of course.

But it also means a cash inflow for renewables, whatever the reason.
Witness
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### Re: Wind Turbines

Biggest UK solar plant approved

The go-ahead has been given to the UK’s biggest solar farm, stretching 900 acres on the north Kent coast.

The government has approved the controversial scheme, which will supply power to 91,000 homes.

The project could include one of the world’s largest energy storage systems.

But it has been fiercely opposed by many local people, and it’s divided green groups. Greenpeace, the RSPB and the countryside charity CPRE are against the plan.

They say it’s industrialising the countryside - and may harm an adjacent wildlife site.

But Friends of the Earth offered qualified support, on the grounds that the current intensively-farmed land was bad for wildlife anyway.

Their spokesperson Mike Childs said: “No-one wants to see damage to local habitats, but this is not some lovely, untouched meadow.

“Changing the use of the site from intensive agriculture will reduce the high level of chemicals currently harming insects and wildlife - but we have to hold the developers to account”.

They… They have sunshine?
Witness
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### Re: Wind Turbines

Solar costs have fallen 82% since 2010

The levelized cost of energy generated by large scale solar plants is around $0.068/kWh, compared to$0.378 ten years ago and the price fell 13.1% between 2018 and last year alone, according to figures released by the International Renewable Energy Agency.

“Since 2010, the cost of energy has dropped by 82% for photovoltaic solar, by 47% for concentrated solar energy (CSP), by 39% for onshore wind and by 29% for wind offshore.”

Those remarkable price falls are quoted by the International Renewable Energy Agency (Irena) in its Renewable Power Generation Costs in 2019 report.

The figures were compiled from the costs and tariffs reported for 17,000 renewable energy project tenders last year which should eventually add up to 1.7 GW of clean power generation capacity.

The cost reductions witnessed in the last decade were due to improved technology, economies of scale, supply chain competitiveness and the growing experience of developers, said Irena.

“The same amount of money invested in renewable energy is producing far more new capacity today than it was ten years ago,” stated the multilateral organization. In 2010, the 88 GW of renewables capacity installed worldwide required the equivalent of $210 billion. Last year, twice that capacity volume was put into service for$253 billion – around 20% more investment.
https://www.pv-magazine.com/2020/06/03/ ... ince-2010/ for the rest.
Witness
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### Re: Wind Turbines

Coal - free first for electricity in Great Britain

Coronavirus slump and sunniest spring on record send green energy soaring in England, Wales and Scotland

Great Britain’s electricity system recorded its “greenest” ever month in May after running without coal-fired electricity for a full calendar month.

The National Grid, the energy system operator, said the country’s sunniest spring on record helped generate enough solar power to reduce the carbon intensity of the grid to its lowest level ever recorded.

The bright and breezy weather helped wind and solar power make up about 28% of Great Britain’s electricity last month, narrowly behind gas-fired power generation, which made up 30% of the energy mix.

Meanwhile, the record low demand for electricity during the coronavirus lockdown has left little room for Great Britain’s last remaining coal power plants to play a role.

Since April Great Britain’s electricity system has run without coal-fired power for about 54 consecutive days, which has helped the carbon intensity of the electricity grid fall to the lowest average carbon intensity on record at 143 grams of CO2 per kilowatt-hour.

The lowest carbon intensity ever was recorded at 46g CO2/kWh on Sunday 24 May.
Witness
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### Re: Wind Turbines

Italy begins the first floating wind power plant in the Mediterranean

Italian developers have begun work on a 750-million-euro (840-million-U.S.-dollar) plan that would create the Mediterranean Sea’s first floating wind farm.

The so-called 7Seas Med project will involve 25 floating wind turbines producing up to ten megawatts of power each. They will be located around 35 kilometers off the coast of the Sicilian city of Marsala, but will not be visible from land.

Italian officials said it is necessary to invest in the kind of cutting-edge technology the wind farm represents, despite the drop in oil prices during the coronavirus pandemic that makes that energy source unusually inexpensive.

“An ambitious plan like this is an investment in the next 25 or 30 years, and so it has to look beyond a temporary drop in oil prices,” Edo Ronchi, a former Italian environment minister who is now president of the Foundation for Sustainable Development, told Xinhua.
https://www.evwind.es/2020/06/19/italy- ... nean/75240
Rob Lister
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### Re: Wind Turbines

Witness wrote: Fri Jun 26, 2020 1:53 am
Italy begins the first floating wind power plant in the Mediterranean
...
The development of floating wind farms is based on a new technology, which allows the turbines to work in water too deep for turbines to be built into the seabed. That is the case in the area off the coast of Marsala, where the water is 300 meters deep. Offshore wind turbines cannot be effectively anchored into the seabed at depths of more than 50 meters.

Well, it's gotta be anchored to something, even if it's just the transmission cable itself. I'm not sure I'd want to put all of the stress on one cable, particularly one not designed to that specific end. The windward forces on that floating tower are not going to be trivial.

http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/do ... 1&type=pdf

I'm going to chalk this up to poor reporting.

I wish them luck and good, honest bid process for their contractors.
gnome
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### Re: Wind Turbines

Speaking from ignorance of specifics here, could they pushing against current or tidal forces?
"If fighting is sure to result in victory, then you must fight! Sun Tzu said that, and I'd say he knows a little bit more about fighting than you do, pal, because he invented it, and then he perfected it so that no living man could best him in the ring of honor. Then, he used his fight money to buy two of every animal on earth, and then he herded them onto a boat, and then he beat the crap out of every single one. And from that day forward any time a bunch of animals are together in one place it's called a zoo! (Beat) Unless it's a farm!"
--Soldier, TF2
Rob Lister
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### Re: Wind Turbines

I won't go as far as to say that tidal forces here are negligible, or even trivial, but they are certainly swamped by wind forces capable of generating 10MW.
gnome
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### Re: Wind Turbines

Ahhh, makes sense.

Here's another article--I think you're right about the bad reporting on the first--this one indicates that the floating kind would still be anchored.

https://news.northeastern.edu/2020/04/0 ... at-floats/
"If fighting is sure to result in victory, then you must fight! Sun Tzu said that, and I'd say he knows a little bit more about fighting than you do, pal, because he invented it, and then he perfected it so that no living man could best him in the ring of honor. Then, he used his fight money to buy two of every animal on earth, and then he herded them onto a boat, and then he beat the crap out of every single one. And from that day forward any time a bunch of animals are together in one place it's called a zoo! (Beat) Unless it's a farm!"
--Soldier, TF2
Witness
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### Re: Wind Turbines

Yes, they are anchored to the seabed. Some concrete box is towed in place, then sunk and filled with sand.

But it would be an interesting engineering problem to have the turbine stay in place dynamically: add propulsion + GPS. Probably not worth the hassle.
Witness
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### Re: Wind Turbines

Abdul Alhazred wrote: Sat Jun 27, 2020 12:33 am Next up: Tethered rigid aerostat with biggest yet wind turbine to harness the jet stream.
They don't seem to stay in place:

Witness
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### Re: Wind Turbines

Portugal ends coal burning two years ahead of schedule

Portugal is the third EU country this year to announce early closure of its last coal plants, as rising carbon costs and competition from gas and clean energy bite

Portuguese energy utility EDP has announced the closure of its Sines coal power plant, bringing forward the planned shutdown of coal-fired power plants in the country by two years, from 2023 to 2021.

In addition to Sines, the company is preparing to close one more plant and convert another unit in Spain, EDP said in a statement.

The decision is “part of EDP group’s decarbonisation strategy” and was taken in a context in which energy production increasingly depends on renewable sources, the company said on Monday (13 July).

The falling cost of renewables, coupled with the rising cost of CO2 pollution permits on the EU carbon market, means that “the prospects for the viability of coal plants have drastically decreased,” EDP added.
https://www.climatechangenews.com/2020/ ... -schedule/
Witness
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### Re: Wind Turbines

Offshore wind power now so cheap it could pay money back to consumers

Renewable energy projects, including onshore and offshore wind and solar farms, have so far been subsidised by government support schemes. This has led to some to complain that clean energy is pushing up bills.

However, the most recently approved offshore wind projects will most likely operate with ‘negative subsidies’ – paying money back to the government. The money will go towards reducing household energy bills as the offshore wind farms start producing power in the mid-2020s.

This is the conclusion of an analysis by an international team led by Imperial College London researchers published today in Nature Energy.

Lead researcher Dr Malte Jansen, from the Centre for Environmental Policy at Imperial, said: “Offshore wind power will soon be so cheap to produce that it will undercut fossil-fuelled power stations and may be the cheapest form of energy for the UK. Energy subsidies used to push up energy bills, but within a few years cheap renewable energy will see them brought down for the first time. This is an astonishing development.”
Details & links: https://www.imperial.ac.uk/news/200353/ ... uld-money/
Rob Lister
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### Re: Wind Turbines

Where does it get the money to pay back to the consumers?
gnome
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### Re: Wind Turbines

I think in theory, by a net reduction in the subsidy, which (ha ha) translates to a lower tax cost.
"If fighting is sure to result in victory, then you must fight! Sun Tzu said that, and I'd say he knows a little bit more about fighting than you do, pal, because he invented it, and then he perfected it so that no living man could best him in the ring of honor. Then, he used his fight money to buy two of every animal on earth, and then he herded them onto a boat, and then he beat the crap out of every single one. And from that day forward any time a bunch of animals are together in one place it's called a zoo! (Beat) Unless it's a farm!"
--Soldier, TF2
Witness
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### Re: Wind Turbines

I think gnome nailed it.
Witness
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### Re: Wind Turbines

Crown Estate grants leases for floating windfarm off Wales

Erebus project in Celtic Sea adds to Queen’s multi-million windfall through expected auction of offshore leases

The Queen’s property managers have given the green light to the first floating offshore windfarm to be built off the coast of Wales, as the UK’s wind industry prepares to power into the Celtic Sea.

The Crown Estate granted two new leases for windfarms in Welsh waters on Wednesday, including the seabed rights for a demonstration project that involves installing floating wind turbines 27 miles from the shore.

The 96MW Erebus project marks a big step for the development of offshore wind off the Welsh coast, and could emerge as one of Britain’s first floating windfarms beyond Scotland, where one is under construction and another planned.

The Crown Estate, which holds the rights to seabeds around the British Isles, encompassing Wales, England and Northern Ireland, has also granted rights for a 10,600 hectare extension to the Gwynt y Môr offshore windfarm off the coast of north Wales, which could provide power of up to 576MW, helping Wales meet climate targets.
https://www.theguardian.com/environment ... -off-wales
Witness
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### Re: Wind Turbines

↑ We sure need another improbable Hollywood action movie.
Witness
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Portuguese government confirms world record solar price of $0.01316/kWh The Portuguese government has revealed some of the preliminary results of the national solar auction which closed on Tuesday. Antonio Delgado Rigal, chief executive of energy forecasting service Aleasoft, said that the 15-year contracts awarded in the auction were the key to understanding the reason of such a low price. This, combined with the rights for land and grid connection guaranteed by the auction, makes attractive bidding at low prices. https://www.pv-magazine.com/2020/08/27/ ... 01316-kwh/ for details. sparks Posts: 17096 Joined: Fri Oct 26, 2007 4:13 pm Location: Friar McWallclocks Bar -- Where time stands still while you lean over! ### Re: Wind Turbines Abdul Alhazred wrote: Sat Jun 27, 2020 12:33 am Next up: Tethered rigid aerostat with biggest yet wind turbine to harness the jet stream. Right. "Elon Musk announces worlds tallest ladder to the Moon." You can lead them to knowledge, but you can't make them think. Witness Posts: 33917 Joined: Thu Sep 19, 2013 5:50 pm ### Re: Wind Turbines Wind and solar are 30-50% cheaper than thought, admits UK government Electricity generated from wind and solar is 30-50% cheaper than previously thought, according to newly published UK government figures. The new estimates of the “levelised cost” of electricity, published this week by the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS), show that renewables are much cheaper than expected in the previous iteration of the report, published in 2016. The previously published version had, in turn, already trimmed the cost of wind and solar by up to 30%. As a result, electricity from onshore wind or solar could be supplied in 2025 at half the cost of gas-fired power, the new estimates suggest. The new report is the government’s first public admission of the dramatic reductions in renewable costs in recent years. It had previously carried out internal updates to its cost estimates, in both 2018 and 2019, but these were never published despite repeated questions in parliament. The BEIS report also presents new estimates of the “enhanced levelised cost” of different technologies, which reflects any wider system benefits and their “system integration costs”. These alternative figures, which have been under development for several years, put gas with carbon capture and storage (CCS) in a particularly favourable light, with costs comparable to wind or solar. CCS is expected to feature in the upcoming energy white paper, due this autumn. https://www.carbonbrief.org/wind-and-so ... government sparks Posts: 17096 Joined: Fri Oct 26, 2007 4:13 pm Location: Friar McWallclocks Bar -- Where time stands still while you lean over! ### Re: Wind Turbines What is this "levelised cost" of which they speak. You can lead them to knowledge, but you can't make them think. Witness Posts: 33917 Joined: Thu Sep 19, 2013 5:50 pm ### Re: Wind Turbines sparks wrote: Thu Sep 03, 2020 1:45 am What is this "levelised cost" of which they speak. It's in the rest of the article. sparks Posts: 17096 Joined: Fri Oct 26, 2007 4:13 pm Location: Friar McWallclocks Bar -- Where time stands still while you lean over! ### Re: Wind Turbines Nobody likes a wise guy Witness. You can lead them to knowledge, but you can't make them think. Witness Posts: 33917 Joined: Thu Sep 19, 2013 5:50 pm ### Re: Wind Turbines sparks wrote: Thu Sep 03, 2020 4:25 pm Nobody likes a wise guy Witness. I thought I showed some restraint… History of Wind Turbines sparks Posts: 17096 Joined: Fri Oct 26, 2007 4:13 pm Location: Friar McWallclocks Bar -- Where time stands still while you lean over! ### Re: Wind Turbines Indeed you did. I didn't have time to read it. (Working for a living is overrated.) You can lead them to knowledge, but you can't make them think. Witness Posts: 33917 Joined: Thu Sep 19, 2013 5:50 pm ### Re: Wind Turbines sparks wrote: Thu Sep 03, 2020 8:03 pm (Working for a living is overrated.) You don't say so. Witness Posts: 33917 Joined: Thu Sep 19, 2013 5:50 pm ### Re: Wind Turbines BP enters offshore wind with$1.1 billion U.S. investment

BP, the oil giant that announced a seismic strategy shift last month, made its first venture into offshore wind power with a $1.1 billion purchase of U.S. assets from Norway’s Equinor ASA. The deal marks the start of an offshore-wind investment partnership in the region for the two companies, which have been at the forefront of the rapid changes in the oil industry as companies seek to adapt to the realities of climate change. BP has taken the boldest steps so far in abandoning the oil-supermajor business model. Just six months after taking the helm, CEO Bernard Looney said in August he’d shrink oil and gas output by 40% over the next decade and spend as much as$5 billion a year building one of the world’s largest renewable-power businesses.

BP will receive a 50% stake in the Empire Wind and Beacon Wind developments off New York and Massachusetts, respectively, the companies said in two separate statements on Thursday. Equinor will retain 50% in both, and continue to be the operator.

Empire Wind, whose first phase could start in 2024-25, has a potential installed capacity of more than 2 gigawatts, and Beacon Wind more than 2.4 gigawatts. Together they’ll be able to power more than 2 million homes. Equinor earlier estimated total investments in Empire Wind’s first phase at about $3 billion. Future Cooperation The companies plan to participate in more offshore wind projects in the U.S., bringing together their significant balance sheets and experience of handling large projects. “Our ambition would be to replicate this across the U.S.,” Dev Sanyal, executive vice president for gas and low-carbon energy at BP, said in an interview. “States are going through their own process of looking at the offshore wind sector, and as offshore leases come available both of us would like to be a part of that.” Norway’s state-controlled Equinor has so far been the most aggressive oil major in offshore wind, seeking to capitalize on its experience in operating big industrial projects at sea. It’s now reaping the rewards of its early-mover status, expecting to book a$1 billion gain from the BP transaction.
https://www.worldoil.com/news/2020/9/10 ... investment
Witness
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### Re: Wind Turbines

Witness
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### Re: Wind Turbines

Not directly wind turbines, but I'll put it here:
Airbus reveals plan for first-ever ‘zero emission commercial planes’, potentially by 2035

The company says that the ZEROe concepts are a ‘historic moment’ for the aviation sector

Aerospace company Airbus announced on Monday that its first zero-emission, hydrogen-powered commercial flight may be ready for take-off by 2035.

It was dubbed a “historic moment” for the commercial aviation sector by the company’s CEO Guillaume Faury.

Called ZEROe, there are three design concepts. The first is a lot like a typical commercial aircraft you would see today, except with longer, more flexible wings.

The second resembles a turboprop plane with six-bladed propellers. The third is the most futuristic, with a “blended-wing body". But the real game-changer is the fuel source: hydrogen propulsion.

In a statement, Glenn Llewellyn, Airbus VP, Zero-Emission Aircraft, said: “As recently as five years ago, hydrogen propulsion wasn’t even on our radar as a viable emission-reduction technology pathway.

“But convincing data from other transport industries quickly changed all that. Today, we’re excited by the incredible potential hydrogen offers aviation in terms of disruptive emissions reduction."

...

Airbus estimates hydrogen has the potential to reduce aviation’s carbon emissions by up to 50 per cent.

The company said the turbofan design had the potential to transport up to 200 passengers more than 2,000 miles. The turboprop plane could carry half as many, half the distance.
https://www.independent.co.uk/environme ... 17838.html

We'll see.